Whatever you know about black holes, maybe it’s all wrong. Maybe the theory of the most genius scientist Albert Einstein has been proved wrong. A genius mathematician from New Zealand, **Dr. Royker, who himself described black holes mathematically in 1963,** has proved the singularity of a black hole. meaning, the point where its entire mass and gravity are centered does not exist, The concept in which Einstein believed. **Now do you understand what this means? **

Well, the singularity of a black hole is the actual black hole. The event horizon is created through its intense gravity and black holes suck things inside.

So when singularity does not exist, then is the existence of black holes also a lie? And if hypothetically we believe that the existence of black holes is a lie, then what was the image of the black hole published by NASA in 2019? Can black holes exist with their event horizon without singularity, or can we say without any gravity source?

Or in exchange for singularity, is there something else in them that is giving birth to their intense gravity? And if so, then what is hidden inside black holes? To find out, we first have to go to the very root of this whole puzzle, which is Einstein’s general theory of relativity, where all of these concepts originated from black holes, singularity, wormholes, and black matter.

So I would highly suggest that you don’t skip this part under any circumstances, because those who feel that they have understood the relationship between gravity and space-time fabric, Understand that 95% of people are wrong.

So look, the way we have been visualizing gravity so far, like there is a space-time in which an object is placed, and due to the weight of that object, it curves, this visualization is completely wrong. Because if you look at it carefully, then you will understand that we are using gravity to explain gravity. And that is why this model does not accurately represent space-time curvature.

**How Gravity Bends Space and Time: A Guide with Simple Examples**

In reality, gravity comes because of curvature, and curvature is not created because of gravity. And let me explain this. Imagine that there is a bucket filled with water, and you put a ball inside it. ** Now what happens? **

**Obviously, the more space that ball takes inside the water, the more water will displaced. Archimedes’ principle, right?** The same thing happens with space-time. If I put this ball in space-time, then the more space the ball takes, the more space-time it will displaced by the ball. And this will create a curvature in the space-time next to the ball. And scientists say that this curvature creates the gravity of that object. Because around that object, they create massive gravity, other objects start traveling in curved paths. And all the curved paths eventually attract towards the center of that massive object.

**Now, how do they attract? **Well, according to the general theory of relativity, every object, you, me, a ball, all of them are in a state of free fall, meaning a straight line motion. But when a massive object curves space-time, then we come into curved free fall from straight free fall. And because of the curviness of the path, **the direction of our fall goes towards the center of mass, which creates a field-like attraction. And this is what we call gravity.**

Now, we can understand this same concept with another easy interpretation, which is the river model of general relativity. Maybe you find this analogy easy, or the previous one, you can try it. So, the river model of general relativity says that when a curvature is formed in our space-time, then things don’t fall in that pit because those things sink into that pit. Instead, that pitfalls in that pit because the space-time below it starts falling into it with those objects.

Basically, whenever a curvature is formed in space-time, then space-time starts behaving like a waterfall, which starts flowing things that are floating on it and starts falling in the curvature. Now, you must also know this, it’s pretty much common sense, we start moving towards the edge of any waterfall, and the flow of water starts getting faster.

So, in this case, if you are in a boat, and you have to protect yourself from falling into the waterfall, then as you get closer to the edge, you have to accelerate the boat in the opposite direction as fast as possible. If you somehow succeed in this, then technically, you will be moving in the backward direction, but still, you look paused from a third-person perspective.

**Singularity: A Myth or a Reality? How Rotation Affects Black Holes and Space-Time**

Now in the context of the black hole, this is exactly the point where just a small mistake and the game is over. Because usually the curvature of the black hole’s edge, or we say its event horizon, the flow of space-time reaches the speed of light, because of which anything in the universe cannot go in the opposite direction except light.

So now you understand, why everything falls into the black hole.

**You are thinking, why did I tell you all this?** Well, The edge of a black hole, called the event horizon, is where things get interesting.

you also know, the black hole is called the black hole because even light cannot escape from it. this is only possible when we assume that the flow of space-time across the event horizon becomes faster than the speed of light.

And not only of space-time but of information transfer. Because the object, or even the light rays, goes inside the black hole, it cannot come out of the light speed. And this is the biggest paradox.

**Is there anything in this universe, which can travel faster than the speed of light? **Obviously, no, right? This is the statement of the general theory of relativity itself. So, all in all, the assumption on which the GTR is based, the same assumption breaks inside the black hole. In this way, in the context of black holes, if we apply the general theory of relativity, then we start getting weird results. And the same point, all scientists named it, Singularity. But, in this group of scientists, there was one physicist, who did not agree with the concept of singularity. He saw this concept as a major flaw.

According to him, the assumption on which the concept of singularity is based, that all black holes are stationary, that assumption is completely wrong. Because, how does a black hole form? When a massive star bursts, right? And physics has a very basic law, the law of conservation of momentum.

According to this, any rotating body will keep rotating until an external force is applied to it. Or, an object does not collide with it. Now, according to this law, the black hole should also rotate. This is the reason, that created doubt in Roy’s mind, which led him to realize, that singularity should not exist.

**The Problem with Black Hole Singularity**

Look, we have been told till now, that singularity is formed, when the black hole is stationary, and only its event horizon rotates. Due to this, things fall in it this way. Here, you can see that all the things that go in the event horizon of the black hole, are falling at the same point. And that’s why, at that point, the pressure of gravity becomes infinite. And exactly because of this, it is called scientist singularity.

Now, everything is clear as water, how singularities are formed in the black hole, which is still there. But, as we have known, that black holes are not stationary.

They rotate. Due to this, point singularity cannot exist in it. Because, if a black hole is rotating, then due to its rotation, things that cross the event horizon, will move toward the center, while rotating around it.

That means, in the depths of the black hole, the motion of these things, will be like the bikes, rotating in the well of death. Like, due to the fast rotation in the well of death, the bikes fall down. Similarly, due to the fast rotation here, things will not fall directly on a point in the black hole. Rather, they will keep rotating in the motion of the ring, till eternity.

This means, that the whole mass, will not be at any center point, but will concentrate on the motion of a ring. In short, it means that singularity does not exist in the form of a point but in the form of the motion of a ring. And, due to this argument, black holes simply rotate. Based on this simple fact,** Einstein’s theory was proved wrong.**

Now, the thing to think about here is, after this explanation of the Kerr case, will the calculations of all the discoveries we have made, using Einstein’s general relativity, be proved useless? Well, obviously not.

Because, we all know that our GPS system, because of gravitational potential differences, depends on the famous time dilation principle of the general theory of relativity. Our GPS satellites are approximately 20,000 km away from the Earth’s surface, and because of their distance, their gravity is less than that of the Earth’s surface.

Now, in this case, the clocks in those GPS satellites, always run faster than the clocks on earth. And, in its solution, the speed of the clocks of all GPS satellites is reduced, using the calculations of relativity, so that they match the exact time of the earth. And if this is not done, then we will leave on the way in the evening, and we will get the data on the traffic tomorrow morning.

**Singularity: A Bridge Between Gravity and Quantum Mechanics**

But, this does not happen. Most of the time, it is accurate till the last minute. This means that, in our current understanding of the general theory of relativity, there is still a lot of weight. Only Einstein’s theory, which was not able to predict anything, like what is inside the singularity, and what was before the big bang, that theory used to get stuck here. So, maybe this concept of the new ring singularity is just an addition to the original general theory of relativity, an up-gradation.

Till now, for rocket launching, we were using Newton’s gravity, then to see objects far away from gravitational lensing, we came to **Einstein’s GTR**. And till now, to understand the things inside the black hole, the theory which was missing, its place, has been taken by Roy Kerr’s theory. Now, what remains to be understood about gravity, is only quantum gravity and its true nature.

Well, we don’t know what’s inside singularity. After all, the particles present there, start showing quantum effects. There will be so many small particles inside a singularity. In such a case, to fully understand singularity, it is necessary to have a theory, which can understand the effects of gravity at the quantum level.

But till now, this has been one of the most fundamental problems of the scientific community, **which is to be able to combine quantum mechanics and gravity,** these two fundamental theories. Now, why quantum mechanics, cannot explain gravity? Not just one, but there are many reasons, and I have already discussed them in detail in this video, which you should not miss at all.

You will get a very in-depth perspective, on what is going on in the science community. And that’s all for today’s video, friends. If you have learned anything new from this video, then do hit the like button. Subscribe to this channel, and press the bell notification, so that you don’t miss any of our upcoming video updates. See you next time. Till then, as always, stay curious and keep learning.